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Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that mainly impacts the development of writing, reading, and language skills. It is likely to be present at birth and to have lifelong effects. Some common signs of dyslexia include difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual’s other cognitive abilities.
There are 4 types of dyslexia. The 4 types of dyslexia include phonological dyslexia, surface dyslexia, rapid naming deficit, and double deficit dyslexia.
Phonological dyslexia is extreme difficulty reading that is a result of phonological impairment, meaning the ability to manipulate the basic sounds of language. The individual sounds of language become 'sticky', unable to be broken apart and manipulated easily. This type of dyslexia is synonymous with dyslexia itself.
Surface dyslexia, first described by Marshall and Newcombe, is a disorder characterized by the relatively preserved ability to read words with regular or predictable grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences but substantially impaired reading of words with “irregular” or exceptional print-to-sound correspondences
Rapid naming deficit – sometimes called rapid automated naming (RAN) – is characterized by difficulty quickly naming things such as numbers, letters, and colors on sight. It can take longer for them to name them in a row, which could be related to processing speed.
The double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that both rapid naming and phonological impairments can cause reading difficulties, and that individuals who have both of these deficits show greater reading impairments compared to those with a single deficit.
Signs of dyslexia can be difficult to recognize before your child enters school, but some early clues may indicate a problem. Once your child reaches school age, your child's teacher may be the first to notice a problem. Severity varies, but the condition often becomes apparent as a child starts learning to read.
Dyslexia signs in teens and adults are similar to those in children. Some common dyslexia signs and symptoms in teens and adults include:
Dyslexia runs in families. As many as 49 percent of parents of kids with dyslexia also have it. And about 40 percent of siblings will also struggle with reading.
Researchers have been looking at specific genes. So far, they’ve found several genes that are linked to reading and language processing issues.
Many kids with dyslexia have other learning and thinking differences as well. It’s common for kids to have both dyslexia and ADHD for instance. Anywhere from 20 to 40 percent of kids with ADHD also have dyslexia. There’s been little research into the connection, but experts think genes may play a role. Watch as an expert explains the overlap between ADHD and dyslexia.
Kids with dyslexia often also have dyscalculia. Research suggests that there may be a genetic link between difficulty with reading and difficulty with math. Learn more about dyslexia, dyscalculia, and genetics.
Although dyslexia is due to differences in the brain, no blood tests or lab screenings can detect it. In fact there have been many researches with pet scans, that conclude to the following. The brain of a child with dyslexia is the same with the brain of a typical child.
Dyslexia can only be formally diagnosed through a Diagnostic Assessment carried out by a certified assessor, such as
We know that dyslexia doesn’t go away. But with good instruction and practice,early intervantion, kids with dyslexia can improve at reading.
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